- Brand name: Ocrevus (Genentech/Roche)
- Route of Administration: Two intravenous infusions of 300 mg given two weeks apart
- Type: Humanized monoclonal antibody
- Emerging treatment for: RRMS and progressive MS
- Status: In Phase III of clinical trials
Ocrelizumab is believed to influence the immune system response by binding to CD20 on the surface of B cells, leading to cell lysis (breaking down of a cell).
How it Works
Ocrelizumab is the humanized form of Rituximab, a mouse antibody to CD20 that has been met with some success in the treatment of RRMS. The humanized ocrelizumab is expected to be less immunogenic and therefore less likely to cause infusion reactions.
B cells are believed to be involved in the abnormal immune response in MS. Ocrelizumab is thought to influence the immune system response in MS through its involvement with B cells. Ocrelizumab binds to CD20, found on the surface of B cells, and causes cell lysis leading to a dose-dependent depletion of B cells.
Research and Results
Biotechnology company Genentech, member of Roche group, recently announced results from a phase III clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab for people living with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The trial, dubbed ORATORIO, is a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III clinical trial designed to investigate the effectiveness of ocrelizumab in reducing clinical disability progression in people living with primary progressive MS. 732 participants with primary progressive MS were enrolled in the trial.
Treatment with ocrelizumab via 2 intravenous infusions of 300mg two weeks apart significantly reduced the risk of progression of clinical disability sustained for at least 12 weeks by 24% compared with placebo, as measured by EDSS. Additionally, ocrelizumab was superior to placebo in a number of secondary endpoints, for example it significantly reduced the risk of progression of clinical disability for at least 24 weeks by 25% and the time required to walk 25 feet (measured using the Timed 25-Foot Walk test) over 120 weeks by 29%. Ocrelizumab decreased the volume of T2 lesions by 3.4% over 120 weeks, compared to placebo which increased T2 volume by 7.4%. Ocrelizumab reduced the rate of whole brain volume loss over 120 weeks by 17.5% compared to placebo.
Adverse Effects Reported
In clinical trials, serious adverse effects were reported to be rare. More people administered ocrelizumab had infusion-related adverse events compared to those in the placebo group at first infusion. Of note, one patient taking ocrelizumab (2000mg) died as a result of brain edema following a systemic inflammatory response with multi-organ failure. The connection between this death and ocrelizumab is unclear.
Montalban X et al. Efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab in primary progressive multiple sclerosis - results of the placebo-controlled, double-blind, Phase III ORATORIO study. ECTRIMS 2015. Abstract #228.