Over the past decade, researchers have made substantial progress in understanding how the immune system misbehaves in multiple sclerosis. Research has uncovered parts of the immune system that can be controlled by therapies to improve health, most notably a type of white blood cell known as the T cell.
Recent clinical trials, however, have revealed surprising results: when B cells, another type of white blood cell, are specifically targeted and removed from the immune system, people living with MS experience significant reduction in relapses. This fresh evidence challenges the conventional knowledge that MS is an exclusively T cell-driven disease.
Here’s what we know and what we still need to find out about B cells:
Gaps in knowledge
|Therapies that selectively deplete B cells lead to dramatic decreases in new MS relapses||Identification of “good” B cells vs. “bad” B cells is needed to develop therapies that target the correct cells|
|B cells in people with MS can abnormally produce molecules that promote inflammation||The method by which B cells enter the central nervous system to cause damage to myelin and surrounding tissues|
|B cells in people with MS can trigger abnormal T cell responses||Clarification on the role of B cells in progressive MS|
|B cells are sometimes found in inflamed brain tissue of people with progressive MS, which suggests they may contribute to disease progression and subsequent worsening of disability||The details behind B cell and T cell interaction, and how this interaction influences MS|